Polymnia Athanassiadi, Athens

Lucian, Peregrinus and Philostratus: the outsiders „other“ in the Second Sophistic.(on how three men of similar education but different calibre conceived of the central intellectual and spiritual issues of their times).

Polymnia Athanassiadi has studied Classics at Athens, the Sorbonne and Oxford and is currently Professor of Late Antique History at the University of Athens. Her publications survey the intellectual landscape of the later Roman Empire from Numenius to Damascius. She has also published translations into Greek of Turkish oral poetry from the Middle Ages to the present day.

Glen W. Bowersock, Princeton

      Artemidorus and the Second Sophistic.

The paper will explore the language and social milieu of the Oneirocritica in the context of sophistic culture and the second-century world. It will attempt to identify links with performance rhetoric, philosophy, medicine, and civic institutions. These issues will also raise the issue of Artemidorus' intended audience.

AB (Harvard) 1957, BA, MA D.Phil. (Oxford) 1962. Dr. h.c. (Strasbourg [1990] and Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes [1999]). Professor of Classics and History at Harvard University from 1962-1980. Professor of Ancient History, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, from 1980 to the present. Author of books on the Roman East, Julian the Apostate, Roman Arabia, late Hellenism, early martyrdom, ancient fiction. Two volumes of collected papers. Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and Membre de l'Institut de France.

Selected bibliography: 1) Greek Sophists in the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1969), 2) Approaches to the Second Sophistic, APA symposium (1974), 3) "Philosophy in the Second Sophistic," in Philosophy and Power in the Graeco-Roman World: Essays in Honour of Miriam Griffin, ed. G. Clark and T. Rajak (Oxford, 2002), pp. 157-70.

Ewen L. Bowie, Oxford

A cultural unity? Regional variations in the cultures of the Second Sophistic.

The paper examines those elements of second sophistic culture where some geographical variation might be in theory possible, even if not to be expected in the light of Philostratus' presentation of a broadly homogeneous sophistic world. It concludes that in almost all matters,including preferences for styles within sophistic rhetoric and literary genres associated with it, little or no geographical variation can be detected. However one para-sophistic literary genre is identified where geographical factors seem very important for its development.

b. Coupar Angus, Perthshire, Scotland, 29 June 1940; 1st Class, Honour Moderations in Greek & Latin languages and literature, April 1960; 1st Class, Final Honour School of Literae Humaniores, July 1962; Craven Fellow, Oxford University, 1962-4; Harmsworth Senior Scholar, Merton College, 1962/3; Woodhouse Junior Research Fellow, St John's College, Oxford, 1963-5.
E.P.Warren Praelector in Classics, Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 1965 -to date; C.U.F. Lecturer in Greek and Latin Language and Literature, Oxford University, 1968-1996; Reader in Classical Languages and Literature, Oxford University, 1996- to date.

Dean, Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 1967-73; Senior Tutor, Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 1981-4; Chairman, Sub-faculty of Greek and Latin Language and Literature, 1985-8; Librarian, Corpus Christi College, Oxford, Michaelmas 1987, Trinity 1990; Vice-President, Corpus Christi College, 1988-1992. Director, Corpus Christi College Centre for the study of Greek and Roman Antiquity, 1993-6

Selected bibliography: 1) Phoenician games in Heliodorus AITHIOPIKA in R.L.Hunter (ed.), Studies in Heliodorus, Cambridge Philological Society Supplementary vol. no.21 (Cambridge 1998) 1-18. 2) A chapter in Cambridge Ancient History vol. xi (Cambridge 2000) 898-921 entitled Literature and sophistic. 3) Athenaeus' citations of early Greek elegiac and iambic poetry in D.Braund and J.Wilkins (edd.) in the The World of Athenaeus (Exeter 2000) 4) Pausanias: inspiration and aspiration in S.Alcock and J.Elsner (edd.), Pausanias. Travel and memory in Roman Greece. (OUP New York 2001) 4) Hadrian and Greek poetry, in Greek Romans, Roman Greeks (Aarhus 2002), 172-97

Riet van Bremen, London

The Epicurean empress. An analysis of Plotina's letters to the Epicureans in Athens.

The paper aims to cast a small beam of light on an aspect of paideia at the very heart of the empire through discussion of an intriguing dossier of letters, written over a period of about five years, by the dowager empress Plotina, and the emperor Hadrian to the Epicureans at Athens.

Riet van Bremen is senior lecturer in Ancient History at University College London. She studied at the Universities of Leiden, where she gained her PhD, and Cambridge. Her recent and current research and publications are all concerned with the history of Hellenistic Greece and Asia Minor. She is writing a book on the city of Stratonikeia in Caria and its two major sanctuaries at Lagina and Panamara.

Selected bibliography: The Limits of Participation. Women and Civic life in the Greek East in the Hellenistic and Roman periods (1996)

Carsten Drecoll, Freiburg

      Libanios: Sophisten und Archonten.

In Libanios Briefen, aber auch seinen Reden wird häufig mit der Identität des Sophistes und des gebildeten Mannes gearbeitet, um zum einen eine soziale Idenitätsbestimmung des Libanios und der von ihm empfohlenen Schüler und Schützlinge vorzunehmen, und um zum anderen die römischen Funktionäre auf ein bestimmtes Verhalten zu verpflichten. Diese persuasiven Vorgehensweisen dienen nicht nur der rhetorischen Ausschmückung, sondern erfüllen eine genau bestimmbare Funktion im politischen und sozialen Feld. Inhalt des Vortrages ist es, anhand einiger Briefe und Reden diese Funktionen zu bestimmen und die gesellschaftlichen Hintergründe darzustellen, die das rhetorische Vorgehen des Libanios bedingt haben, also zu zeigen, daß konkrete politische und gesellschaftliche Notwendigkeiten die rhetorische Form verlangt haben.

Geb.1967 in Langenhagen bei Hannover, Studium der Alten Geschichte, Gräzistik und Mittelalterlichen Geschichte in Heidelberg, Pavia und Freiburg. Promotion in Alter Geschichte 1996. Forschungsprojekt zu Briefen der römischen Kaiserzeit mit Unterstützung der Gerda-Henkel-Stiftung, wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter am Inst. f. Alte Geschichte Freiburg, Mitarbeit am SFB 541 Identitäten und Alteritäten.

Björn Ewald, Yale

Men, muscle and myth: The funerary art of Athens and the Second Sophistic.

While research on the literary culture of the Second Sophistic has registered considerable successes in the last decades, research of the material culture of Greece under the Roman Empire has remained behind, despite a progressively improving state of publication: methods and models of interpretation appropriate to the respective material and the peculiar circumstances of its rise are yet to be developed. Categorizations and interpretations that have proven themselves in research on Roman sculpture cannot be applied to Greek material unconditionally, even when treating as in the case of sarcophagi monuments which, viewed superficially, are closely related and belong to the same genre. My paper proposes to make the first systematic attempt to interpret Attic sarcophagi of the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD in their cultural and historical context. I propose that the imagery of 'Attic sarcophagi' is closely related to the main cultural movement of the 2nd and early 3rd centuries AD, the Second Sophistic, and that contemporary sarcophagi provide a direct insight into the construction of Greek identity under Roman rule.

Björn Ewald Ph.D. in Classical Archaeology from the University of Munich (1996), is Assistant Professor at the Departments of Classics and the History of Art of Yale University.

Selected bibliography: 1) Der Philosoph als Leitbild. Ikonographische Untersuchungen an römischen Sarkophagreliefs, 34. Ergänzungsheft Römische Mitteilungen (Mainz 1999) 2) Kakomousía. La virtù di Ulisse e il potere della musica, in: F. de Angelis - S. Muth (eds.), Im Spiegel des Mythos. Bilderwelt und Lebenswelt. Palilia 6 (1999) 143-154; 3) Mit Mythen leben. Die Bilderwelt der roemischen Sarkophagreliefs, co-authored with Paul Zanker (Hirmer Munich 2003) ca. Pp. 400 (in print).

Jaap-Jan Flinterman, Amsterdam

      Admonishers or adornment? Sophists and the imperial court.

The paper will examine some contacts of second- and early third-century sophists with emperors as they are presented in the works of contemporary authors (Aristides, Lucian, and Philostratus). During the period under consideration, the behaviour of philosophers vis-à-vis emperors was evaluated on the basis of a clear-cut conception of the philosopher's role. The expectations in the light of which the behaviour of sophists in their contacts with emperors was assessed seem to be more elusive. Rather than accepting this as a corollary of the versatility characteristic of the sophistic trade, the paper aims to explore the possibility of interpreting characterizations and evaluations of the behaviour of sophists vis-à-vis emperors as elements of a sophistic self-definition.

Jaap-Jan Flinterman, Ph.D. from the University of Nijmegen (1993), is Lecturer in Ancient History at the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.

Selected bibliography: 1) Power, Paideia & Pythagoreanism. Greek identity, conceptions of the relationship between philosophers and monarchs, and political ideas in Philostratus' Life of Apollonius (Amsterdam: J.C. Gieben, 1995) 2) '"... largely fictions ...": Aelius Aristides on Plato's dialogues', Ancient Narrative 1 (2000-2001) [2002], 32-54. 3) 'The self-portrait of an Antonine orator. Aristides, or. 2.429ff.', in E.N. Ostenfeld (ed.), Greek Romans and Roman Greeks. Studies in cultural interchange. Aarhus Studies in Mediterranean Antiquity 3 (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press 2002), 198-211.

Marco Galli, Rome La Sapienza

Forme di codificazione della memoria religiosa nell eta della Seconda Sofistica.

La sfera del sacro costituisce uno dei campi di azione di maggior interesse per un pepaideumenos del II sec. d. C. Proprio in quella ampia compagine storica e culturale che viene per convenzione, a mio avviso giustamente, definita "Seconda Sofistica" si assiste ad un complesso processo di collazione, selezione e archiviazione, applicato a vaste aree del sapere e della paideia ellenica.
Più in particolare, per ciò che concerne il patrimonio di tradizioni e norme inerenti al sacro si può instaurare un proficuo scambio tra la dimensione letteraria e i risvolti più prettamente archeologici dell'esperienza religiosa: le peregrinationes colte di alcuni significativi rappresentanti delle élites romane, il tipo di percezione dello spazio sacro, la prassi evergetica di alcuni celebri pepaideumenoi, vasti programmi di ristrutturazione di complessi santuariali, ecc. rappresentano alcuni aspetti che sono già stati affrontati nell'ambito di alcuni studi mirati al fenomeno della Seconda Sofistica.
Allo scopo di approfondire ulteriormente lo studio dell'esperienza religiosa nel II sec. d. C. su base archeologica e documentaria con particolare riferimento alla funzione catalizzante del milieu culturale per la formazione di nuove identità religiose si propongono alcune linee interpretative e alcuni punti di discussione.
Un nucleo centrale di discussione sarà la ridefinizione dello spazio sacro e i modi di controllo della comunicazione religiosa. "Il rituale è un sistema di comunicazione simbolica costruito culturalmente" [S. J. Tambiah, Rituali e cultura (Bologna 1995)], il cui contenuto culturale si radica in costrutti ideologici particolari. In questa prospettiva di approccio antropologico-strutturalista alle forme di rituale consideriamo l'agire religioso come una forma di comunicazione, di una comunicazione connotata da forte carica simbolica. Particolare centralità è da riservarsi ai partecipanti e agli agenti nel processo di comunicazione: chi comunica con chi, quali i contenuti che si possono identificare, quali i media preposti a questa comunicazione. Il luogo prescelto al manifestarsi del 'sacro' diventa il luogo di una complessa intereazione sociale.
I maggiori centri cultuali della religiosità tradizionale della provincia di Achea si offrono come osservatorio previlegiato dove analizzare, all'interno di una determinata società e in un determinato momento storico, sopraggiunte trasformazioni strutturali della comunicazione religiosa e della morfologia dello spazio sacro, di quelli che erano da sempre i "centri della sacralità" tradizionali.
Che i "centri della sacralità" tradizionali già agli occhi di un attento osservatore antico risultassero nel II sec. d. C. rinnovati o, più precisamente, efficacemente riattivati, grazie a diretti interventi di "restauro", non solo nella loro facies architettonica ma anche nei caratteri performativi del rituale può essere rintracciabile in varie fonti letterarie. Molteplici testimonianze archeologiche e epigrafiche per le dinamiche esposte qui sinteticamente permettono di delineare alcuni nuovi aspetti nella morfologia dello spazio sacro e di stabilire connessioni più precise tra forme e controllo della memoria religiosa con l'azione di particolari promotori.

Dottore di ricerca in Archeologia Classica, Università di Colonia; Laurea in Lettere Classiche, Università degli Studi di Bologna; Dall'ottobre 2002 docente a contratto Università degli Studi "La Sapienza" Roma, Dipartimento di Scienze storiche, archeologiche e antropologiche dell'antichità Settore: Archeologia e storia dell'arte greco e romana)

Selected bibliography: 1) Die Lebenswelt eines Sophisten. Untersuchungen zu den Bauten und Stiftungen des Herodes Atticus (Mainz am Rhein, 2002) 2) O. Cordovana - M. Galli (a cura di), Arte e memoria culturale nell'età della Seconda Sofistica, Atti del Congresso Internazionale, Istituto Archeologico Germanico Roma 23-24.11.2000 (Catania, Edizioni universitarie del Prisma, in stampa) 3) Meccanismi della memoria nell'età della Seconda Sofistica, Introduzione in: O. Cordovana - M. Galli (a cura di) op. cit. 3) Et Graeci quidem eum consacraverunt: La creazione del mito di Antinoo, in: O. Cordovana - M. Galli (a cura di) op. cit. 4) Pepaideumenoi am Ort des Heiligen: Kommunikationsformen und euergetische Initiativen in griechischen Heiligtümern zur Zeit der Zweiten Sophistik, in: Chr. Reusser (ed.), Griechenland in der Kaiserzeit. Neue Forschungen zur Plastik, Architektur und Topographie. Festschrift zum 60. Geburtstag von D. Willers, Koll. Bern 12-13 Juni 1998. Beiheft HASB 4 (2001) 43-70. 5) Pilgrimage as Élite Habitus: Educated Pilgrims in the Sacred Landscape During the Second Sophistic", in: J. Elsner-I. Rutherford (eds.), Seeing the Gods: Pilgrimage in Graeco-Roman and Early Christian Antiquity (Oxford University Press, in stampa)

Maud W. Gleason, Stanford

Gory details: Rhetorics of dismemberment in Galen & Polemo.

This paper explores how two Sophistic practitioners, rarely thought of together, developed ways of taking apart the body--both literally and in words. What were the social realities and the rhetorical complexities involved in this discourse? What light does it shed on the interplay of "Greek" and "Roman" identities in the Second Sophistic?

B.A. in Classics summa cum laude Harvard-Radcliffe 1975; B.A. with first class honors in Litterae Humaniores Oxford University 1977 (Ancient History and Philosophy); Ph.D. University of California Berkeley 1990; Lecturer in Classics, Stanford University

1) Making Men: Sophists and Self-Presentation in the Roman Empire (Princeton University Press, 1995) 2) Truth Contests and Talking Corpses in James Porter, ed. Constructions of the Classical Body (University of Michigan Press, 1999) 3) Mutilated Messengers: Body Language in Josephus in S. Goldhill, Being Greek Under Rome: Cultural Identity, the Second Sophistic and the Development of Empire (Cambridge University Press, 2001)

Simon Goldhill, Cambridge

      Religion und Kultur: Konflikt und Tradition.

This paper will consider the range of intellectual engagements with the religious in the 2nd century, and will argue that we should take very seriously pagan religious texts, not least as the world against which and out of which Christianity developed.

Simon Goldhill is Professor of Greek at Cambridge University, a fellow of King's College, where he is also Coordinator of Research and Director of the Research Centre. He has published on a wide range of topics on Greek literature and culture. He lectures all over the world, and is a regular broadcaster on radio and television in England.

Selected bibliography: 1) Foucault's Virginity. Ancient Erotic Fiction and the History of Sexuality (Cambridge, 1995) 2) Being Greek Under Rome (Cambridge 2001) 3) Who Needs Greek? (Cambridge 2002).

Christopher P. Jones, Harvard

      Antiquity, ethnicity and other loyalties in the Second Sophistic.

Authors of the Second Sophistic often speak of the Greeks as a class apart, distinct from barbarians, and they are often seen as marking themselves off, openly or covertly, from the Romans. By contrast, inscriptions and certain authors such as Dio Chrysosotom and Pausanias suggest that there were many understandings of who was Greek, and that even authors such as Aelius Aristides identified with the traditions of their own cities or regions as much as with a supposed Hellenism.

Christopher Jones received his B.A. from Oxford University (1962) and his Ph.D. from Harvard University (1965). He taught at the University of Toronto from 1965 to 1992, when he was jointly appointed to the Departments of Classics and History at Harvard. He became George Martin Lane Professor at Harvard in 1997.
Memberships, etc.: Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada (1987), Corresponding Member of the German Archaeological Institute (1992), Fellow of the American Numismatic Society (1993), Member of the American Philosophical Society (1996), Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1998), Fellow of the Russian Society of Classicists (2001).

Selected bibliography: Philostratus: 1) Life of Apollonius of Tyana (translation, with preface and notes by G. W. Bowersock, Penguin Books, 1971) 2) Plutarch and Rome (Clarendon Press, 1971) 3) The Roman World of Dio Chrysostom (Harvard University Press, 1978) 4) Culture and Society in Lucian (Harvard University Press, 1986), 5) Louis Robert, Le Martyre de Pionios, pretre de Smyrne (co-edited with G. W. Bowersock, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C. 1994) 6) Kinship Diplomacy in the Ancient World (Harvard University 1999). 7) In preparation: Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana (Loeb Classical Library)
Some recent work relating to the Second Sophistic: 1) "The Panhellenion," Chiron 26 (1996) 29-56 2) "Themistius and the Speech To the King," CP 92 (1997) 149-52 3) "Time and Place in Philostratus' Heroikos," JHS 121 (2001) 141-49

Onno M. van Nijf, Groningen

      Festivals, physical education and Greek identity in the Roman East.

It is an established, though often ignored fact that athletic competition was a constitutive element of Greek cultural identity. It was this observation that caused Jacob Burckhardt to describe Greek civilization as particularly 'agonistic'. Although there has been some attention for the cultural significance of athletics in earlier Greek history, its role in intellectual life and in the constitution of Greek cultural identity at the time of the Second Sophistic remains largely unexplored. In this paper I shall explore the place of athletics in Greek paideia of the Roman period. I shall focus my discussion on two major settings of literary and physical culture: the gymnasion and the festival, and on the main protagonists: performers and trainers. I shall argue that athletic and literary culture should not be seen as two separate spheres, but as two complementary ingredients of Greek cultural identity.

Onno van Nijf (1961) studied Classics at Leiden University, and Ancient History at Cambridge. He took his PhD from the university of Amsterdam, and since 2000 he has been Van der Leeuw Profesor of Ancient History at the university of Groningen. He has published on social and cultural history of the Greek world in the imperial period.

Selected bibliography: 1) The Civic World of Professional Associations in the Roman East. Amsterdam (1997) 2) 'Inscriptions and civic memory in the Roman East' in: A. Cooley The Afterlife of Inscriptions. London (2000) 21-36 3) 'Local heroes: Athletics, festivals and elite self-fashioning in the Roman East' in S. Goldhill Being Greek under Rome. Cambridge (2001). He is currently working on a book on Greek festivals in the Roman age.

Richard Neudecker, Rome

Bildung ist schön. Die öffentlichen Bibliotheksbauten in der Kaiserzeit.

Der Beitrag handelt von der architektonischen Präsentation des Kulturlebens im kaiserzeitlichen Stadtbild, das im 2. und 3. Jh. n.Chr. ganz auffällig um die prachtvolle Erscheinung öffentlicher Bibliotheken bereichert wurde. Der naheliegende Hinweis auf zunehmende Wertschätzung oder Verbreitung von literarischer Bildung ist als Erklärung unzureichend, da die Bibliotheken in erheblichem Umfang der Sicherung und Nutzung juridischer und administrativer Dokumente dienten. Daher wird der Versuch unternommen, aus der Bedeutung der Bibliotheken als Archive der städtischen Identität auch bestimmte Merkmale ihrer Gestaltung und Ausschmückung sowie den generellen Anspruch auf repräsentative Pracht abzuleiten. Im selben Zug boten die neuartigen Bibliotheken als Archive literarischen Wissens dem intellektuellen Betrieb in der kaiserzeitlichen Stadt einen öffentlichen Rahmen, der an Pracht anderen, ebenfalls anfänglich der Privatsphäre verbundenen Bauten wie etwa den Thermen nicht nachsteht.

Studium der Klassischen Archäologie, der Lateinischen Philologie und der Alten Geschichte in München, 1982 promoviert mit der Dissertation "Die Skulpturen-Ausstattung römischer Villen in Italien"; seit 1984 am Deutschen Archäologischen Institut, Abteilung Rom, als Herausgeber der "Archäologischen Bibliographie"; 1994 Habilitation und seitdem Lehrtätigkeit an der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München

Selected bibliography: 1) Die Skulpturenausstattung römischer Villen in Italien (1988) 2) Die Pracht der Latrine. Zum Wandel öffentlicher Bedürfnisanstalten in der kaiserzeitlichen Stadt (1994) 3) The Roman villa as a locus of art collections, in: The Roman villa. Villa urbana. First Williams Symposium on Classical Architecture, Philadelphia 1990 (1998) 77-91.

Thomas Schmitz, Frankfurt

Address unknown? Sophists as letter-writers.

The fictional letters of Aelian and Alciphron are among the most curious, yet neglected documents of the Second Sophistic. Written in the character of fishermen, farmers, parasites, or courtesans, they seem to be mere showpieces, instances of sophistic declamations (with their typical role-playing) in the form of letters. My paper will try to analyze the relationship between these letters and their readership; it will argue that these texts threaten the stability of our reading experience, thus exposing, in a self-conscious manner, the precarious status of the Sophistic text.

Studied classics, French and comparative literature in Bonn, Paris, and Harvard. MA Paris, 1989; PhD Bonn, 1992. Assistant professor of classics at the University of Kiel 1992-1999. Research fellowships in Paris (1992) and Harvard (1997-8); visiting professor at the University of Heidelberg (1999). Full professor of classics, University of Frankfurt (1999). Professor of classics, University of Bonn (2003).

Selected bibliography: 1) Bildung und Macht. Zur sozialen und politischen Funktion der zweiten Sophistik in der griechischen Welt der Kaiserzeit, Munich 1997. 2) "Performing the Past in the Second Sophistic," in Martin Zimmermann (ed.), Geschichtsschreibung und politischer Wandel im 3. Jahrhundert n. Chr. Kolloquium zu Ehren von Karl-Ernst Petzold (Juni 1998) anlaesslich seines 80. Geburtstags (Historia Einzelschriften 127),Wiesbaden 1999,71-92. 3) "Narrator and Audience in Philostratus's Lives of the Sophists," in: Jas Elsner (ed.), Philostratus, Cambridge (Engl.), in press.

Heinrich von Staden, Princeton

Imitation, display, and uses of the past in Second-Century science and medicine.

Lea M. Stirling, Winnipeg

Stepping out of the Classical sea: Venus, marriage, and ideal beauty in late antiquity.

In late antiquity most representations of Venus (sculpture, mosaic, other luxury arts) present her with marine associations. Marriage hymns (epithalamia) addressed to pagans and Christians draw heavily on the same imagery. The emphasis on classical literature in education of the day (paideia) ensured the importance of Venus as a symbol of ideal beauty.

Dr. Lea Stirling is Associate Professor of Classics at the University of Manitoba (Canada) and holds a Canada Research Council Chair in Roman Archaeology. Her research focusses on late-antique sculpture and sculptural collecting. She also excavates in Tunisia at the Roman site of Leptiminus.

Selected bibliography: 1) In prep. The learned collector: mythological sculpture and classical taste in late-antique Gaul. Book manuscript accepted by University of Michigan Press. 1997. 2) "Late-antique goddesses and other statuary at the villa of La Garenne-de-Nérac." Echoes du Monde Classique 41: 149-76. 1996. 3) "Divinities and heroes in the age of Ausonius: a late-antique villa and sculptural collection at Saint-Georges-de-Montagne (Gironde)." Revue Archéologique: 103-43.

Ralf von den Hoff, Munich

"... in vollendeter Kunst den Marmor zur Raserei gebracht."
Kolossale mythologische Statuengruppen des späten 2. und frühen 3. Jhs. n. Chr. aus Rom und die neue Rhetorik der Statuen.

Seit dem späteren 2. Jh. n. Chr. erscheinen in Rom erstmals in größerer Zahl szenische mythologische Statuengruppen weit überlebensgroßen Formats und drastischer Thematik im öffentlichen Raum der Stadt. Der Vortrag diskutiert dieses Phänomen anhand zweier Statuengruppen, die mythische Kindermorde darstellen, und versucht, ihren innovativen Charakter zu bestimmen. Dabei wird die These diskutiert, daß sich unmittelbare Auswirkungen der literarischen Ekphraseis und ihrer Funktionen auf die neue ‚Rhetorik' und Gestaltung dieser Skulpturen beobachten lassen und somit Innovationen in der kaiserzeitlichen Bilderwelt antoninisch-severischer Zeit auch als Konsequenzen einer Konkurrenzsituation zwischen Rhetorik, Literatur und Skulptur verstehbar sein könnten.

Ralf von den Hoff (Dr. phil. Klassische Archäologie, Universität Bonn 1992; Habilitation Universität München 2001) ist Privatdozent und Oberassistent am Institut für Klassische Archäologie der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München. 1999-2000 lehrte er am Department of Classics der John-Hopkins-University in Baltimore, MD.

Selected bibliography: 1) Philosophenporträts des Früh- und Hochhellenismus (München, 1994). 2) Konstruktionen von Wirklichkeit. Bilder im Athen des 5. und 4. Jhs. v. Chr., hrsg. zusammen mit Stefan Schmidt (Stuttgart, 2001). 3) Ornamenta gymansiode? Delos und Pergamon als Beispielfälle der Skulpturenausstattung hellenistischer Gymnasia, in: P. Scholz - D. Kah (Hrsg.), Das hellenistischeGymnasion, Kolloquium Frankfurt a. M. 2001 (im Druck).

Tim J.G. Whitmarsh, Cambridge

Garlands and chains: Mesomedes, Hadrian and the poetics of patronage.

The world of the 'second sophistic' is one of free-speaking philosophers, cunning orators and brilliant litterateurs, of Greek culture expressing itself with ebullience and self-regarding confidence … or so we might think from many contemporary discussions. The widescale rehabilitation of Greek literature of the first centuries CE over the last thirty years has been accompanied by a general (but not exclusive) shift of emphasis, away from the political and material constraints explored by Bowersock and others, and onto the *expressive* powers of the text. It is sometimes as though the precondition for appreciating literary qualities is the release of the sordid burden of political and economic 'realities', especially where these impinge upon the author's faculties of free expression.

This paper argues, to the contrary, for the need to situate our texts firmly in the context of the institutions that allowed literary production and dissemination in the Roman empire. There is no such thing as free expression - *all* utterances are mediated and (to an extent) determined by context. At the same time, however, the ingenuity and sophistication of the texts should not be lost sight of. What is proposed is not simply a prosopographical or material-historical approach, but a 'cultura poetics', coupling materialist considerations with close, attentive reading of the texts in question.

The particular emphasis of this paper is upon the institution of patronage, the widespread role of which in contemporary Greek literature has not always been appreciated. Plutarch, Appian and Lucian, to take some well-known examples, all seem to be involved in patronal relationships that are specifically tied to their literary output. But this paper focuses instead upon a less familiar area of second-century culture, namely lyric poetry; and specifically the figure of Mesomedes, a Cretan lyricist and freedman of the emperor Hadrian. Mesomedes is best known from discussions of ancient music (some of his poems are transmitted with notations). But his poems also meditate, subtly, on the relationship between poet and patron, between subject and autocrat. These are themes that have received considerable attention in respect of the Latin tradition (most recently in Ruurd Nauta's and Carole Newlands' discussions of Statius), but almost none in respect of the Greek.

Academic qualifications: First class BA hons in Classics: King's College (Cambridge), 1992; MPhil (equivalent of distinction) in Classics: King's College (Cambridge), 1994; PhD in Classics (Symboulos: philosophy, power & culture in the literature of Roman Greece): King's / St. John's Colleges (Cambridge), 1998
Academic posts: University lectureship (temporary) in Classical literature: Faculty of Classics (Cambridge), 1997; Junior research fellow: St. John's College (Cambridge), 1997 - 1999; Newton Trust lecturer, Faculty of Classics (University of Cambridge), 1999 - 2001. Simultaneously: fellow, college lecturer and director of studies at St. John's College (Cambridge), 1999 - 2001; Lecturer in Hellenistic literature: University of Exeter (2001 - ).

Selected bibliography: 1) Greek literature and the Roman empire: the politics of imitation (Oxford, 2001); 2) 'Alexander's Hellenism and Plutarch's textualism', Classical Quarterly 52 (2001), 174-92; 3) 'Greek and Roman in dialogue: the pseudo-Lucianic *Nero*', Journal of Hellenic Studies 119 (1999), 142-60

Bahadir Yildirim, New York

Identities and Empire: Local mythology and the self-representation of cities in the Greek East during the Roman Imperial Period.

In this paper I will address the question of how communities in the Hellenic East during the Roman Imperial period used representations of local mythology as a medium for fashioning their social, political, and cultural identities by examining a series of reliefs from a Roman civil basilica of the late first century C.E. at Aphrodisias in Caria. I will propose that the visual 'program' of these reliefs functioned not simply as an illustration of now largely lost local narratives but more importantly as a visual encomium that articulated the unique self-image of the community in terms of themes that were widely venerated by the cultures of the Second Sophistic. I will argue that myth played a vital role in the constant negotiation of the status of communities in relation to centers of power.

Bahadir Yildirim received his B.A. in the History of Art from New York University (NYU) in 1992 and his Ph.D. in the History of Classical Art and Archaeology from the Institute of Fine Arts (IFA) of NYU in 2001. He taught as an adjunct professor in the Fine Arts Department of the College of Arts and Science at NYU in 2002. He began his current position as the director of the Ankara branch of the American Research Institute in Turkey (ARIT) in October of 2002. His doctoral thesis on "The Reliefs from the Roman Civil Basilica at Aphrodisias in Caria" grew out of his participation in the excavations of New York University at Aphrodisias in Turkey since 1993.